Confidential

Plausible Deniability: Hezbollah in South America

Plausible deniability is the ability of people, typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command, to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others in an organizational hierarchy because of a lack or…

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Hacker
Confidential

Hacker-Mercenaries: The Use of Private Hacking Firms

Summary: It is common knowledge now that Private companies offer hacking services to the highest government bidder. Consequentially ushering in a new era of “cyber mercenaries”. (Source) The increased prevalence of these companies and their government contracts indicate a growing…

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Confidential

Combatting Disinformation in the 21st Century

Countering Disadvantage: Why Does This Matter? The arrival of COVID-19 mixed together a rise both in misinformation as well as disinformation. With uncertainty being the norm, the activity of bots spreading disinformation doubled during the early quarantine in 2020. While…

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Confidential

Project Toledo: The Secret Russian Biological Weapons Program

While previous Grey Dynamics articles analysed Russian hybrid warfare via Wagner PMCs and GPS spoofing, a secret Russian biological weapons program provides a new ‘dynamic’. In 2017, the last of Russia’s chemical weapons were allegedly disposed. This article will explore…

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Confidential

Wagner in CAR: Russia’s ‘Non-State State Actor’ Part VI

Wagner in CAR is an essential weapon in the hybrid warfare arsenal of the Kremlin. By utilizing Wagner and other private military companies (PMCs), the Russian state enforces its existing spheres of influence.With a focus not only on existing spheres…

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Confidential

Russian Military Bases in Egypt

The presence of Russian forces in Libya, as well as the alleged presence of PMC’s in CAR, have highly likely pushed the creation of a military base in Egypt. Key Judgements KJ-1. The frequency and intensity of Russian activity in…

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Confidential

Why is Russia Building Military Bases in Sudan?

The German newspaper Bild has brought to light that Russia is building military bases in Sudan. This would be a significant increase from the military footprint that it already possess within the state. There were reports and video evidence in…

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Confidential

Russia’s ‘Non-State State Actor’ Part V

This series of articles have explored the activity of the Russian private military company (PMC) Wagner in Africa. Links between subsidiary companies, Wagner management, and links to GRU & Ministry of Defence (MOD) has been established. Despite reports of Russian…

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Wagner: Russia’s ‘Non-State State Actor’ Part IV

    Libya had amassed a debt of no less than $4.6 billion to Russia by 2008, largely stemming from the Soviet era. President Putin travelled to Libya and met Gaddafi in ’08 and wrote off the entire debt. In…

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Top Secret

Hezbollah’s Business Affairs Component

Hezbollah’s Business Affairs Component relies on a network of recruits, sympathisers and non-state actors to obtain profits while maintaining deniability. From donations to extortions, methodologies to obtain funding vary depending on the environment and communities. Why Does This Matter? ‘Hezbollah…

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