Confidential
Confidential
Intelligence Failure
Confidential
Confidential

Germany in Namibia: The Herero and Namaqua Genocide

Germany in Namibia? Yes, they have a past in common. To commit an act intending to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group is an act of genocide. Genocide, as a term, is quite…

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Confidential

The ARCOS Raid: Britain’s Declaration of War

The ARCOS Raid of 1927 was the final straw that caused the formal termination of diplomatic relations between Britain and the USSR. Background The All-Russian Co-operative Society (ARCOS) was established in June of 1920. ARCOS was the principal organisation for…

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Confidential

Space Programme: the UK, USA and Russia’s Cases

Space Programme: a perspective by Mark Sedwill, Cabinet Secretary and National Security Adviser for the United Kingdom. “If the UK and US can foster even deeper cooperation security forces can work together They can withstand the threats of today and…

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Confidential

The Information Research Department: The Foreign Office’s Propaganda Bureau

The Information Research Department (IRD) was a propaganda department of the UK’s Foreign Office from 1948 to 1977. The IRD is one of the UK’s best-kept counterintelligence secrets. Whilst documents are usually declassified after 30 years, the IRD still has…

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Confidential

Semmelweis Effect: When Ideas Control Governments

The Semmelweis Reflex is the rejection of assessments that contradict pre-existing beliefs. The bias when applied to political and military decisions, is called ideological stubbornness. Semmelweis Reflex and Cognitive Biases The popularity of how psychology affects politics, conflicts and ‘geopolitics’…

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Confidential

Cuba´s Expansionism in the Horn of Africa

Cuba’s expansionism: motivations in Ethiopia Cuba´s expansionism in Algeria, Guinea-Bissau or Zanzibar are examples of Cuban influence in Africa supporting domestic and anti-colonial insurgencies. Cuban intervention in Ethiopia, on the other hand, is an indicator of Cuban expansionism as a…

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Confidential

Cryptography: Cryptowars During the Cold War

Cryptography is the practice of communicating securely between two parties. Cryptographers used techniques to ensure only the sender and intended recipient can process and read the content. Perhaps the most famous example of cryptography and cryptoanalysis is the German Enigma…

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Confidential

Agent 355 – George Washington’s Unknown Female Spy

Agent 355 is the protagonist of a story where the main actor identity still remains unknown nowadays. The Culper Ring (Culper Spy Ring), was an American intelligence organisation. General George Washington set up this organisation and Major Benjamin Tallmadge supervised…

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Confidential

Iva Toguri D’Aquino: ‘Tokyo Rose’

Iva Toguri D’Aquino Iva Toguri D’Aquino, also called Tokyo Rose, was a radio broadcaster during World War Two. She became an enemy of war when trapped in Japan. Later, the US would find her guilty of treason for her broadcasts,…

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Confidential

Operation Condor: The Communist Threat in Latin America

Operation Condor Operation Condor integrated state terror across South America during the Cold War, after successive military coups. From 1975 to 1977 military regimes in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina rounded up thousands of people. These were suspected of…

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